Bamboo and Rattan

53 species of bamboo from 11 genera are estimated to be found in 73 districts across Nepal. Bamboos are found in natural forest and farmlands. The estimated total growing stock of bamboo is around 15 million cubic metre with an approximate biomass value of 1060 M. tons. Bamboo covers an estimated area of 63,000 ha and 60% are in natural forests. Annual production of bamboo culm is estimated at 3.01 million of which 2.64 is internally consumed and around 0.64 m. culms are exported to . On an average household consumption per year is 46 stems. Around 102 M. tons of bamboo shoot is estimated to be annually produced for local consumption.  For centuries, Bamboos are used for construction, household appliances and food. A large number of Bamboo based micro-enterprises are scattered throughout the country. Traditional use of some of major Bamboos species is given below.

Local Name Scientific Name Major Uses

SN Local Name Scientific Name Major Use
1 Dhanu Bans B.balcooa scaffolding, storage bins, fencing, roofing etc
2 Tama/Choya Bans D. Hamiltonii bamboo shoots, weaving materials etc.
3 Taru Bans B.tulda basketries, scafolding, low quality woven products
4 Mal Bans B. nutans construction including bridges
5 Malingo Bans A. maling basket and furniture making
6 Kante Bans B. arundinacea construction of buildings
7 Kalo/Balu Bans D. hookerii weaving, construction, fodder
8 Kath/Lathi Bans D. strictus sticks and constructions
9 Nigalo Bans Drepanostachyam sp. construction, mats, weaving, fodder and sticks
10 Phosre Bans Dendrocalamus. sp. weaving and fodder
11 Ringal Bans Thamanocalamus sp. weaving and fodder
12 Leyas/Murali D. patellaris flute and weaving
13 Koraincho Bans Oxytenanthera sp. fencing, construction, weaving
14 Chigar Bans Thamnocalamus sp. food for black bear and pheasants
15 Dhungre Bans D. giganteus construction, weaving, containers

Eight species of rattan from two genera are estimated to be found in Nepal. Rattan occurs in association with the evergreen semi evergreen and mixed Terai hardwood forests. Its natural habitat is in swampy areas near water holes and perennial water sources upto 2000 metres form mean sea level. Amatya et al (1998) in the Ecogeographic Survey of Rattan, funded by IPGRI, gives the geographic distribution of rattan in . This reports states that Rattan is found in twelve districts (out of seventy five districts) and spread over east to west part of country. These districts represent subtropical to subtemperate climatic zones. In four species of rattan do occur naturally, they are, Calamus tenuis, C. leptospadix, C. acanthospathus and C. erectus. Out of these only first three species could be taxonomically identified. More species of rattan are reported to be found in ; Brandis (1874) reports that Calamus erctus and Plectcomia himalayana are found in . Similarly INBAR Newsletter (1996) suggests that two genera and eight species of rattan are endemic to . They include Calamus gracilis, C. inermis, C. khasianus and C. latifolius in addition to Plectocomia himalayana and three species of Calamus mentioned above.

Primarily, imported Rattan used Rattan is used in for manufacturing furniture and other household materials. According to one study, around 20 well established firms are reported to have carried out over Rs. 17 million worth of trading during 1994/95 adding around 25% value to the product.